In Arq+ the engineering projects (technicalities) handle the necessary technical specifications of the buildings or fractions and normally are associated to a base project – architecture.
Differing from work to work, the technical engineering projects shall be delivered on licensing or before building or demolition work.
Technical projects insert also, if the construction demands, the presentation of a plan to occupy public street, which shall be presented together with the remaining technical projects.
The presentation of these engineering projects may be done separately according the nature of the request:
- In a Licencing case, these technical engineering projects may be submitted at the same of the architecture project or compulsory at approval phase of the project, having a caveat of 6 months to do so, and an extension of 3 months, upon duly justified request.
- In a Previous Communication case, these technical engineering projects have to be submitted at the same time as the architecture project.
With engineerig projects the creation of buildings acoustically efficient implies the adaptation of measures that both maximize the good acoustic performance and increase the users’ satisfaction.
The acoustic engineering project aims to verify the conformity of acoustic isolation of all buildings and fractions, regardless its use, with the following main items:
- Isolation of air sounds of the vertical compartments (walls), both internal and external (front);
- Isolation of air sound of horizontal elements (pavements);
- Isolation of percussion sounds of the horizontal elements;
- Noise from equipment and installations.
Aims to define the installation of the water supply system in the building or fractions supplied by public water system.
A project of Water Supply shall guarantee the easy maintenance and longevity of the cold and hot waters network. For that, before installation tests of pressure and impermeability shall be run as to detect any possible leak.
In the execution of these, the following has to be taken into account:
- the preservation of water potability and quality, through the use of adequate materials of plumbing and storage systems;
- the velocity limits of drainage of the pipes as to control vibration and noises;
- storage means as reservoirs and respective pumping groups.
These engineering projects contemplate already existing buildings, that will suffer remodeling or rehabilitation, new construction as well as irrigation systems and supply to urban equipment as water fountains and similar. It is part of the building network of the water supply, the fire safety system that use water and spray. The conception of these systems has to done according to the rule in force of the fire safety.
National Authority of Civil Protection (ANPC) is the entity that secures the fulfillment on safety against fire in buildings.
These engineering project aim to define the surroundings looks of the building or fraction, or even public spaces, namely pavements, what type of pavement material, gardening areas, shrubs, what type of flowers, plants and trees, as well as all the other aesthetic elements as natural stone, hedges and finishing.
In articulation to the water project, it defines the type of irrigation system to be adopted.
HVAC projects – Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning, are ruled by the Requirements on the Energy Performance of Buildings Regulations (REH) and by the Requirements on the Energy Performance of Commerce and Services Regulations (RECS). These entities define a set of requirements applied to buildings and houses with acclimatization systems, which, along with features related to the surroundings and the limitation of energetic consumption, also rules the efficiency, internal air quality and the maintenance of the acclimatization systems of the buildings, imposing periodical energetic audits to service buildings.
HVAC is particularly important on projects of industrial and services buildings as these places are oblige to a rigorous control of environmental conditions in terms of temperature, humidity and air renovation.
It is equally important in its articulation with projects and installation of fire safety especially in the conception of commercial, industrial, services and parking facilities spaces.
Demolition is one of the used processes in structural engineering, applied when recovering of the existing structure is not viable, be it due to its conditions of preservation and on the economic-financial sense, or cause incompatibility with the future projects or by legal limitations.
Demolition work is mainly:
- Deconstruction of existing buildings, where dismantling and demolition technics shall be adequate to the type of construction and to each phase of the work;
- The management of demolition debris shall be handled according to the law in force: its recollection, transport, storage, treatment, valorization and elimination in a way not to harm public health and the environment;
- Final field cleaning and clearing as to leave it ready to the new construction;
- This type of project, with or without Peripheral Contention, is applied and mandatory when one intends to execute new buildings with basement and when these are near or nearby of other buildings or streets where the execution of excavations slopes is not possible and/or economically viable
- Peripheral Contention may be provisory or definitive, with a ray of solutions to be use in these type of structure, namely gravity retraining walls, anchor retraining walls, foothills walls, molded walls, “Berlin” walls, pile wall, geotechnics, amongst others.
- The realization of these excavation works and the construction of new structures nearby existing ones (which may or not be in advanced state of structural degradation) imply a survey of complex security matters. These may severe if it is in an historic area of an urban densely populated area and without urban organization.
- The Excavation and Peripheral Contention are subject to a series of combinations and calculations that vary and are adapted to each situation, understanding different methods as the analysis of the structure to be built and its frame with the surroundings (topography, geology and hydrography) in close relation to the selected building process.
- The different constrains associated to the execution of these type of structures implies that they are considered of high risk, therefore the project to be executed shall be thorough and contemplating always the building agenda, being an essential document to be used in the different stages of the construction work.
The sewage engineering project (drainage of residual waters) aims the sending back to the public collector or water treatment of the sewage produced by the buildings or fractions, as well as to establish its inner circuit.
A Residual Water Drainage shall account for:
- The flow of the residual waters without risk of clogging as to avoid inundation;
- The fulfillment of security norms that maintain the drainage network separated and away of other networks to avoid contaminating clean waters;
- The compatibility of the buried networks with the building foundations;
- To secure ventilation of the tubes network as to avoid the accumulation of formed poison gases;
- Clear access of the maintenance of the network as to secure the used materials lifespan;
- The Stability Project is going to determine the type of construction system to be used at the structure, along with the prescriptions of the architecture project. The structure study is applied taking into consideration the constrains be it of structural order (for example existing buildings) and/or of fulfillment of legal requirements
- Be it Reinforced Concrete, Wood or Steel, the Stability Project is an essential part to the execution of a good project, in which the designer defines and analyses the specific structural solution, with the needed resistant characteristics to secure functionality, durability and work security according to the Architecture and respecting all rules and norms in force.
- An Electric project aims the conception of the internal circuits and its connection to the power plant.
- It defines the power potency to be installed or changed according to the needs of the equipment to be used and installed.
- It shall be installed according to the architecture project and all other specialties, mainly with fire safety and telecommunications.
- In some cases of changes or of low electric power potency it may be presented only an Electrotechnical Form.
A project to install a gas system foresees in all points of usage of this resource and based on that it is dimensioned the tubes and all mandatory elements to this technicality as the general cut valve, reducers (when applicable), pressure limiter (when applicable), pressure regulators or reducers, upstream columns near the shunt (when applicable), cut valves (automatic or manual) and the measurement instruments.
Taking into consideration the available gas supply type in the area, a project to install gas will also determine which is the best type of gas supply (Natural or bottle).
This project also seeks the best solution to consumer economy. Taking into account that the pipes are duly dimensioned, the leak risk and consequently the increase of the invoice are reduced. Furthermore, an adequate gas pressure may generate economy as there will not be leakage.
The elaboration of a project to Telecommunications Infrastructure in Buildings aims to connect its installation to the public networks.
This project obeys to a set of methodologies and rules aiming to satisfy and fulfill specific functionalities needs, defining a set of solution on telecommunications according to the building typology and usage or activity.
11Occupying Public Street
It is a mandatory project whenever, due to construction work motives, be necessary to occupy the public street with equipment to support the works.
A sketch with written describing areas identifying the streets characteristics, the pathways, the fencing and organization of areas to support the construction work, siding places, scaffolds, material and debris depots, mixers, containers, cranes, crawler cranes, machinery, lifting devices, or others equipment or installations related to the execution of the work.
It shall also identify the entrances and exits of the vehicles, temporary street signs and duration of occupation.
This project aims to secure the thermic comfort conditions of the buildings or fractions, minimizing the energy usage, the pathologic effects of the construction due to superficial condensations and the indoor involving elements.
In this project it is define the walls, pavement, thermic bridges constitution as to improve thermic comfort and energetic efficiency.
These projects aim to secure air quality, by renovating the indoors air by outdoors air in a controlled way. Currently, housing in force law obliges the assurance of a minimum renovation air rate of 40% per hour
There are three types of Ventilation:
-Natural, is the air renovation promoted by natural actions (thermal and wind) that secure a controlled way of air circulation between external air admission opening (windows and grids) and the openings of air extraction (chimneys).
– Mechanic, is the air renovation promoted by mechanical ventilators, that secure a controlled and non-stopped air circulation between external air admission opening and air extraction opening connected to conducts. There are systems of mechanic insufflation and extraction with only extraction ventilators.
– Combined, is the mixture of both natural and mechanic ventilation, being characterized by the existence of individual extractors connected (exhausters and bathroom extractors) to individual conducts.
One shall also take into consideration the exhaustion systems of industrial fumes, namely from kitchens related to food and beverage industry, which compulsory need a previous survey as to understand the ruling dispositions in what concerns outdoor conducts.
Uses the following systems:
-Hotte Exhaustion System, using a mechanical ventilator (autonomous) discharging the gases outside, after duly filtrated, preferable with compensated Hotte which implies its assembling at the existing wall or at the posterior facade or building lounge.
In this last case it needs authorization from both Town Hall and all tenants.
-Electrostatic Filter System, a depuration fume system, which filters the fumes, reduces the odors and retains the fat.
This solution, as it doesn’t need assembling conducts, it does not need the approval of the tenants.
In both cases shall be used a System duly approved as some Town Halls demand the submission of a certificate to approve and issue the Usage License to open the business.